|The state of Bihar is located east of India. It has 83 million inhabitants over an area of 94,160 km2. Patna is the capital and the official language is Hindi. |
The state is crossed from west to east by the Ganges and thus has a very fertile alluvial plain. Agriculture is the main economic activity of the state. The crops are mainly along the basin of the Ganges (sugar cane, rice, wheat, potatoes, tobacco, jute, etc. ...). Apart from the sugar factories, there are few industries and the state is poor.
The state of Jharkhand was created in 2000 to meet the demands of tribals (Adivasi). Its 27 million inhabitants are spread over an area of 79,710 km2. The state is dominated by the mining Chotanagpur plateau (one of the richest mining regions in the world and the largest in India). It extracted mainly coal, iron, bauxite, copper and mica.
|The history of this region is very old and was marked by significant religious events. It is in Bihar, Bodh Gaya, the prince Siddhartha Gautama attained enlightenment and became Buddha. It is Pawapuri Mahavira was born, the 23rd Tirthankar, considered the founder of Jainism . Bihar is also the tenth Sikh guru, Gobind Singh, was born. |
But the history of Bihar is mainly marked by the Maurya dynasty and including the reign of Chandragupta (4th century BC) and of Ashoka (3rd century BC) who made Pataliputra (now Patna) one of the most developed cities of India.
The Gupta dynasty ruled until the end of antiquity in the Bihar and it was the Pala who ruled until to the Muslims arrived in the 12th century. Bihar lost its political and economic influence. The only outstanding personality of the Mughal period was Sher Shah in the 16th century.
The British placed the Bihar under the presidency of Bengal until 1912. At that time the Bihar and Orissa were united into one province. It was not until 1935 that the Province of Bihar became an administrative unit of the colony as such.
At independence the province became a state of the republic. Bihar in November 2000 was almost cut in half to allow the creation of the state of Jkarkhand south.
Patna, capital of the state of Bihar, is one of the oldest cities in the world. Historically it was established Ajatshatru the king when he decided to build a small fort on the banks of the Ganges in a place then called Pataligram. We are then in the 6th century BC The city was renamed Pataliputra and will dominate the region until the 5th century AD It will be a great center of culture and teachings.
Around 273 before J C. .- the great emperor Ashoka replaced the wooden palisades with stone walls. The buildings erected at that time impressed all travelers and the reputation of the city exceed the boundaries. Pataliputra Unfortunately the fall will be. In the fifth century it was sacked by the Greeks and then devastated by the floods. The city will be "rediscovered" at the 16th century by Sher Shah Suri and called Patna. It will then be controlled by the Mughals and then by the Nawabs of Bengal. Patna is the British built their first factory in 1620. They definitely take control of the city in 1764 after the Battle of Buxar.
Places to Visit....
This building ovoid 29 meters high was built by John Garstin in 1786 for the purpose of storing grain. The British wanted to avoid a repetition and famine that struck the region in 1770. This silo can store up to 140 000 tonnes of grain but it was never completed. The staircase that surrounds can climb to the top terrace which offers views of the city.
The Mandir MDT
This is particularly revered Sikh shrine since it is the birthplace of the tenth guru, Gobind Singh, in 1666.
The building we see today was started by the Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839. Part of the temple was destroyed by an earthquake in 1934 and was rebuilt in 1954. You can visit the temple provided to remove their shoes and cover their heads.
This museum has impressive sculptures of Maurya and Gupta periods. We can also see one of the masterpieces of the museum, the Yakshi Didarganj of a woman carved from yellow sandstone and carrying a fly swatter ( picture ).
Among the other sights are the oldest tree fossil in the world (200 million years), a canon of the First World War, a gallery of bronzes and many stuffed animals.
Library of Eastern Khuda Baksh
This place is famous for its beautiful Arabic and Persian manuscripts, for his paintings and his books including patches of Spain when the Arabs were forced to leave the peninsula.
Bodhgaya is the most important Buddhist pilgrimage center in the world. It was here that Buddha attained enlightenment under a tree (banyan tree) that a release is still alive.Many Buddhist temples and buildings were erected during the reign of Ashoka but only a few are still visible. Many people, monks and curious, come here to spend a few winter weeks in meditation centers.
Places to Visit....
The Mahabodhi Temple
It seems that the foundations of this temple was laid by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC It was restored in the 11th and the 19th century. Today's pyramidal tower is 50 meters high and has a large golden statue of Buddha touching the earth with his right hand. The bas-relief murals depict the life of Buddha.
Near the temple is the sacred banyan tree. This is not the original tree under which Buddha sat but one of his descendants. Shoot the first tree was brought to Sri Lanka by Ashoka's daughter. This rejection was developed (he is still alive today) and it is one of his shoots, which was in turn reduced to Bodhgaya where the first tree died.
This temple was built in 1163 in the Chalukya style and dedicated to Shiva , Vishnu and Surya. As the name suggests it is decorated with beautiful pillars intricately carved. Ceilings and portals are decorated with figures of gods and goddesses. A stunning black basalt Nandi is in it.
This town takes its name from Gayasura ( asura meaning demon), the son of Tripurasura. Gayasura had the power to send to heaven all who touched him. This annoyed many Yama, the god of death, who asked Vishnu to kill Gayasura. Vishnu agreed to this request while providing Gayasura that the soil covering his body would be called sacred and Gaya Ksetra. The city of Gaya is revered by Hindus who come to seek the salvation of their dead. For this they offer funeral cakes (the pindas) offering.
Places to Visit....
Top of thirty meters and built in 1787, this Hindu temple is home to the footprint of Vishnu. It measures 40 cm long and 15 wide and is embedded in a rock placed in a silver bowl of 1.2 meters in diameter.
The Akshaya Vat
Located near the temple Vishnupad this banyan tree was blessed by Sita, the wife of Rama
, giving it immortality. Buddhists revere the Buddha had meditated also because under the tree before going to Bodhgaya
Located thirty miles from Gaya, these caves were excavated to -200 BC Two caves contain inscriptions of Emperor Ashoka. The interior is remarkably smooth, especially that of the Sudama cave. Loma Rishi cave has a magnificent facade carved Buddhist inspiration.
Rajgir was the capital of Magadha kingdom until Ajatshatru installs in Patna in the 5th century BC. At that time the city was called Rajagriha or Girivraja. Rajgir is a city sacred to Buddhists. Buddha spent many years preaching on the hill where he converted Griddhakuta Bimbisara King, father of Ajatshatru. The first Buddhist Council would have held close to the city, six months after the death of Buddha. Rajgir is also sacred to the Jains as the twentieth Tirthankar Mahavira was born here and have stayed there. The city now attracts tourists Because of the climate and the presence of hot springs.
It was here that Buddha withdrew during the rainy season to reflect and deliver sermons. A staircase cut into the rock hillside provides access to two natural caves which served as a refuge.
The Venuvana Vihar
It is on this site that King Bimbisara built a monastery for the Buddha to meditate. Nearby is the pool of Karanda in which the founder of Buddhism was performing ablution.
Vishwa Shanti Stupa
Built by the Japanese on the hill Ratnagiri, this stupa 38 feet high houses four Buddha statues representing the four stages of life (birth, enlightenment, education, death). You can access the top of the hill with a chairlift.
The Ruins of Fort Ajatshatru
The fort was built by Ajatshatru the 6th century BC it was here that he imprisoned his father. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of a stupa contemporary of Buddha.
Nalanda has a long history. Buddha and Mahavira, founders of Buddhism and Jainism, frequently visits the city. It is also the site of the supposed birth of Sariputra, one of the great disciples of Buddha. But it is thanks to its university founded in the 5th century BC that Nalanda achieved fame in Asia.
The Ruins of The University
This university was founded by the Gupta kings. It taught the Buddhist and Hindu texts. In the heyday had more than 10,000 students and 1,500 teachers. The university prospered thanks to the patronage of the kings who were building stupas, monasteries or temples. Most buildings were constructed several times the one above the other, mostly red brick. This teaching center operated until the late 12th century, when it was sacked by the Afghans. She then fell into disrepair. Today they cover 12 hectares.Archaeologists have discovered nine levels of occupation. The largest structure visible is the Great Stupa, surrounded by buildings erected at different times.
The Archaeological Museum
The museum includes objects found at the site of the university. It shows how the university had expanded its school of sculpture and paintings. You can see bronzes, manuscripts and other objects of the great Mauryan and Gupta periods. Other collections include plates of stone and copper covered with writing, coins, pottery, etc ...
This town in western Bihar is on the Grand Trunk Road, the famous road crossing India from east to west from the Middle Ages. This highway for commerce was a great development under the Mughal and was remodeled by architect Aliwal Khan during the reign of Sher Shah in the mid-16th century.
The Mausoleum of Sher Shah
Surrounded by a small artificial lake this massive building was built in the death of Sher Shah in 1545. Its dome is 46 meters high and 22 meters in diameter or 4 more than the dome of the Taj Mahal. The walls are decorated with geometric designs in blue, red, white, yellow. Sher Shah's tomb is located in the central octagonal room.
On The Tomb of Hassan Khan
Hassan Khan was the father of Sher Shah and was also buried at Sasaram. Surrounded by a fortified wall, the building was built in 1535, however, less resilient to time and the extension of the city.